Bogor, 16-10-2018       Indonesia Version

The complex form between zinc and amino acid (methionine) will provide double effects, as the sources of micro mineral and amino acid required for milk production. When given to bulls it will improve sperm quality. 

 The sperm quality of bulls critically determines the quality of frozen semen used in artificial insemination in dairy cattle. The reproductive health of dairy cows also determines the success rate of conception, and so the reproductive performance of cows needs to be optimized in oder to induce conception in mating through artificial insemination. An optimal reproductive condition of the cow will produce offspring with regular calving interval, and also will stimulate milk production. An alternative method for optimizing sperm quality and reproductive performance is through feed supplementation.

In general, optimal feed is seen only from its primary compounds such as protein, energy, vitamin, and mineral contents to meet the requirements of cows for producing milk and good reproductive performance. There are compounds such as micro minerals which are required to improve reproductive performance but neglected, especially by smallholders. Micro mineral compounds such as Zn, Mn, Co, Cu are required by animals for the important functions they have on the operation of enzymes, cell proteins and others. Micro minerals also have roles in improving fertility, reducing lesions on legs, and preventing mastitis .

Zinc mineral when given to bulls will improve sperm quality. Micro minerals when given in the form of complex (organic) will be absorb better in the body than when given in the inorganic form. When the complex form is made between zinc and amino acid (methionine) it will offer double effects, as the sources of micro mineral and of amino acid required for milk production. Technology for developing this organic zinc has been obtained by IRIAP, and it only requires up-scaling with the best yield percentage and more uniform particles.

Kalem technology was obtained in 2012, and in 2015 technology for producing Zinc (Zn), Copper (Co) and Mangan (Mn) -methionine. The yield percentage from the reaction between minerals and methionine was 70% higher than expected. In in-vitro fermentation test with rumen fluid, it was obtained that zinc-methionine (organic) compound was not easily broken in the rumen and significantly increased total gas when compared to zinc inorganic or mixture of Zn, Mn, Cu -methionine. The high total gas produced showed higher enzymes activities from rumen microbes through degrading feed entering the in-vitro rumen.  The in-vitro feed digestibility was higher with the addition of zinc organic, though not significant. Therefore, during trial with dairy cows zinc organic resulted in better influence than control (without zinc organic).

Analysis on particle size of zinc-methionine with Zetasizer Nano Malvern. There were two peaks shown from the particle analysis. The first peak was the most with an intensity of 91.6% with an average particle size of 286.4 nm, ranging 100-392nm. This showed that zinc-methionine (zinc organic) particles were nano particles. The first peak was the most compound in the solution, which was zinc-methionine. While the second peak had an intensity of 8.4% which was thought to be zinc-sulphate not reacting with methionine.

A very high increase in volume was obtained, 23%, due to the addition of fat calcium (kalem) + zinc-methionine. Fat calcium is a free fatty-acid reacting with calcium and which becomes a protected source of energy. Unsaturated fatty acid affects negatively to fiber-degrading bacteria. When protected, this fatty acid will not be degraded in the rumen and utilized by animals through absorption in the intestines instead. Unsaturated fatty acid (with double bonds) would become the source of sperm. Also, the addition of fat calcium resulted in the increase of sperm volume. However, the sperm concentration would be lower. This could be because the increase of volume would dilute the sperm. The flaw in sperm collection would also affect the sperm quality.

Supplementation with zinc organic in dairy cows in Balitnak in 2015 showed better dry matter consumption, zinc consumption, and dry matter digestibility than control or combination between organic mineral with carotene. Dairy cows supplemented with zinc organic consumed higher dry matter 16.42+0.21 kg/day, higher zinc consumption 1158.55+2.79 mg/day, higher dry matter digestibility 77.11+1.85 %, when compared to 16.26+0.54 kg/day, 757.08+0.16 mg/day dan 76.73+1.98 % respectively. 

Observation on milk production showed a rapid decline after 40 days in the control. Control animals showed a decline in milk production 0.05 litre = 50 ml/day when compared to animals treated with zinc organic which was 0.017 litre = 17 ml/day, or to animals treated with zinc organic+carotene only declining 0.0056 litre = 5 ml/day during feeding trial. This shows that supplementation with zinc organic or zinc organic + carotene can reduce the declining rate of milk production. Trial with combination between Kalem and zinc organic is currently on the way, but supplementation of Kalem separately to lactating dairy cows also resulted in positive effects which was reducing the declining rate of production  so that the average milk production increased. It was expected that the combination between Kalem and Zinc organic would also result in positive effects to milk production.

Technology for producing Kalem and organic minerals (mineral-methionine) has been obtained by IRIAP which enables easier and cheaper production of Fat Calcium and Zinc-methionine.  The combination of fat calcium and zinc organic can contribute better in increasing bulls fertility, cows fertility and milk production in dairy cows.